VISSZA A HÍREKHEZ
American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) 45th Annual Meeting
ASCO 2009: Investigational Targeted Therapy for Metastatic Melanoma Shrinks Tumors, Causes Stir at Meeting
The targeted-therapy revolution in oncology could be coming to melanoma, especially if the results of a phase 1 trial of an investigational agent are followed by similar results in subsequent trials, according to melanoma experts attending the American Society of Clinical Oncology 45th Annual Meeting.
"We are on the verge of a paradigm shift for melanoma therapy," said melanoma expert Boris Bastion, MD, from the University of California at San Francisco. "This is a decisive step toward personalized medicine," he added.
The investigational PLX4032 (Plexxicon Inc) oral agent targets the oncogenic BRAF gene mutation known as V600E, which occurs in about 60% of malignant melanoma patients, according to the study authors.
In a dose-escalation, proof-of-concept study, more than half of metastatic melanoma patients with this BRAF mutation who received high doses of PLX4032 had tumor shrinkage, said lead study author Keith T. Flaherty, MD, from the Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia.
"We were able to give enough drug to block mutated BRAF, and that resulted in clinical benefit in a majority of patients treated at higher doses," Dr. Flaherty told Medscape Oncology. Specifically, 9 out of 16 patients with BRAF mutations had an objective response by RECIST criteria. Of the remaining 7 patients, 5 had tumor shrinkage, but not enough to count as an objective response, and 2 had growth, he added.
Among the 16 patients with BRAF mutations, median progression-free survival "appears to be 6 months," said Dr. Flaherty,
"These early responses happen with remarkable reliability," adding „that the agent is not useful for patients without the BRAF mutation.
Historic Change, Quickly
Dr. Flaherty acknowledged that the treatment of melanoma is moribund. "Eighty-five (85%) percent of patients don't respond to the 2 available drugs. It's almost as if we are starting off from ground zero in terms of treating the disease," he said.
Dr. Bastion suggested the same. „In 1840, advanced melanoma was described as untreatable," he said, „adding that not much has improved since.” „I feel this is about to change," he continued.
In the study, supported by Plexxicon, 55 cancer patients were enrolled, 49 of whom had melanoma. Of these 49 melanoma patients, 28 received doses too low to determine efficacy; the other 21 received sufficiently high doses (at least 240 mg twice daily). Five of these patients did not have BRAF mutations and did not respond to PLX4032. However, 16 did have the mutation and therefore were suited to the drug. As noted above, 9 of the 16 were responders and 7 were not.
V600E BRAF is also found in colorectal carcinomas (10%), some anaplastic and papillary thyroid carcinomas, and low-grade serous ovarian carcinomas, the study authors noted.
Dr. Flaherty has served as a consultant to Plexxikon and Hoffman-LaRoche; some of his coauthors are employees of Hoffmann-La Roche and Plexxikon Inc. Dr. Bastion disclosed relationships with Novartis and Alnylam.
American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) 45th Annual Meeting: Abstract 9000. Presented May 30, 2009.
VISSZA A HÍREKHEZ